Updating the Human-Animal Bond
see Pet Loss Survey: Part A-Dogs (Planchon & Templer, 1997)
Planchon, Lynn A; Templer, Donald I.
The correlates of grief after death of pet. Anthrozoös. 1997; 9(2-3): 107-113.
Both Pet Loss Surveys are published on p.109.
Also used the Pet Attitude Scale (Templer et al. 1981) and the Death Depression Scale (Templer et al. 1990). The degree of dog grief is based upon the items used by Fogle and Abrahamson (1991), but for this study one point was initially given to each item to produce a score from 0 to 9. A composite cat grief index was composed in the same way. See p.110.
See Pet Attachment Scale, PAS (Albert & Bulcroft, 1988)
Gosse, Gerald H; Barnes, Michael J.
Human grief resulting from the death of a pet. Anthrozoös. 1994; 7(2): 103-112.
Abstract: Investigated antecedents of the human grief response associated with the death of a pet cat or dog. 207 adult volunteers (79% women) who experienced the loss of a pet within a 1-yr time period completed the Grief Experience Inventory, the Censhare Pet Attachment Survey—Intimacy Scale, the Schedule of Recent Experience, and the Questionnaire for Pet Owners. Level of attachment to the deceased pet, perceived understanding from others, and other stressful events combined to have significant predictive ability in grief outcome. Other analyses indicated qualitative differences in grief outcome according to the presence of children or more than 1 other adult in the household. Female Ss indicated a qualitatively stronger response in feelings of despair than did male owners.
“…an 11-item measure assessing the strength of attachment the participant has to his or her deceased pet. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale ranging from almost never to almost always. The measure possesses satisfactory internal consistency (alpha = .69) in the present sample.” –-Packman et al. Continuing bonds and psychosocial adjustment in pet loss. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 2011 Jul; 16(4): 347.
Pet Attachment Questionnaire, PAQ (Zilcha-Mao, Mikulincer & Shaver, 2011)
Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R.
An attachment perspective on human–pet relationships: conceptualization and assessment of pet attachment orientations. Journal of Research in Personality. 2011 Aug; 45(4): 345-357.
Abstract: In a series of studies we used attachment theory as a framework to examine human–pet relationships. We proposed that, as in interpersonal relationships, people differ in their degree of anxious or avoidant attachment to their pets, and that these individual differences influence pet-related cognitions, emotions, and behavior. We constructed a self-report scale, the Pet Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ), and examined its factorial structure, associations with attachment patterns in human relationships (Studies 1–2), relation to explicit and implicit expectations concerning a pet (3–4), and reactions to the loss of a pet (5). We found that individual differences in pet attachment do occur in the domains of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and these differences contribute uniquely to the prediction of expectations about the pet and emotional reactions to its death.
The PAQ is available at www.researchgate.net/publication/259191164_Pet_Attachment_Questionnaire (Accessed 25 Jul 2015).
Used in:Langston, Stephanie Cecile.
Understanding and quantifying the roles of perceived social support, pet attachment, and adult attachment in adult pet owners' sense of well-being. 2014. 209 leaves.
Unpublished thesis (PhD)—Washington State University, Pullman, Department of Counseling Psychology, 2014.
Abstract: Researchers have extolled the benefits of pet ownership. Most of the studies which have been published lack a theoretical lens through which to conceptualize the human-animal bond. Attachment theory offers a framework for understanding the connection between humans and pets. This study applied attachment theory to the human-animal bond in an effort to understand whether pet attachment (PAtt) is related to adult attachment (AAtt), subjective well-being (SWB), and perceived social support (PSS). Beyond correlational analyses, this study also examined the degree to which individual differences in pet attachment can uniquely predict subjective well-being in adults who own pets. Participants were 561 pet-owning adults who completed a demographic questionnaire, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR), the Pet Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ), the Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family Scales (PSS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Expanded Form (PANAS-X). Results indicated that Adult Attachment (AAtt) scales (anxiety and avoidance) were inversely correlated with positive affect (PA) and satisfaction with life (SWLS), and were positively correlated with negative affect (NA). Perceived Social Support (PSS) was positively correlated with PA and SWLS and negatively correlated with NA. PSS was a significant predictor of SWB, AAtt was a significant predictor of SWB, and PSS predicted AAtt. AAtt partially mediated the relationship between PSS and PA, fully mediated the relationship between PSS and NA, and partially mediated the relationship between PSS and SWLS. No significant moderation effects were found for the interaction between AAtt and PSS in predicting participants' SWB. Pet Attachment (PAtt) anxiety had significant correlations with AAtt anxiety and avoidance, while PAtt avoidance had a significant correlation with AAtt avoidance and no relationship with AAtt anxiety. PAtt avoidance was significantly associated with NA, but not PSS, SWLS, or PA; PAtt anxiety was significantly correlated with PSS, SWLS, PA, and NA. PAtt avoidance significantly predicted SWLS and PAtt anxiety significantly predicted NA. PSS was not found to be a significant predictor in either facet of PAtt, and PSS did not predict PAtt. Interpretation and limitations of the findings, applied implications, and future directions are discussed.
Abstract also available in Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B. 2015 Aug; 76(2).